Robert Hooke wrote to Leeuwenhoek verifying his observations in pepper water

February 1, 1678

Hooke dated the letter in Old Style. 1 February in London was 11 February in Delft. The Royal Society copyist gave it the date of 1 December 1677.


Copy found in Royal Society's Letter Book Original, supplement 4 GH, pp. 367-68

A Letter from Mr. Hooke to Mr.Leeuwenhoek verifying his Observations of Anmalcula in Pepper Water, and adding an account of others observed in the Infusions of several Grains in Rain Water.

London, Dec'r 1: 1677


The Papers you directed to the Lord Brounker were read at a full Meeting of the Royal Society, and very kindly accepted by the Members thereof: and they have ordered me to return you both their thanks for so freely communicating your Observations, and also an account of what hath been here done in order to verify your Observation concerning the small Animals you have first discovered in Pepper Water.

Having steeped then in Rain Water, Pepper, Wheat, Barly, Oats, Peas and several other Grains, and having fitted up some Microscopes, which had lain a long while neglected, I having been by other urgent occasions diverted from making further Inquiries with that Instrument; I began to examine all those several Liquors & though I could discover divers very small creatures swimming up and down in every one of these Steepings, and even in Rain itself, and that they had various Shapes and differing Motions; yet I found none so exceedingly filled & stuffed as it were with them, as was the Water in which some corns of Pepper had been steeped. Of this the President and all the Members present were satisfied, and it seem'd very wonderfull that there should be such an infinite Number of Animals in so imperceptible a quantitiy of Matter: that these Animals should be so perfectly shaped and indued [sic imbued?] with such curious Organs of Motion as to be able to move nimbly, to turn, stay, accelerate and retard their Progress at pleasure. And it was not less surprizing to find that these were gigantick Monsters in comparison of a lesser sort which amost filled the Water.

Sir, what further Discoveries my time will permit to make I shall by the next send you. In the mean time (not doubting but that you have many already by you, and that you will daily increase them) I do hereby assure you that if you please to communicate any other to the Royal Society by mine or any other hand, you will very much oblige them, and more particularly, your very great Admirer & Honorer.


You may please to direct your Letter thus: To Mr. Robert Hooke Secretary of the Royal Society at Gresham College, in London.