Towers in the southern wall


... between the Oostpoort and the Rotterdamse Poort


St. Agnieten Tooren

Leeuwenhoek rented this tower from the city in on December 5, 1693, according to the city's Consentboek (permit or license book) for 1664-1794 (image below; OAD inv. 650.2 fol. 31).

St. Agnieten

St. Sebastiaens




He paid 12 guilders per year for 12 years. He doesn't mention this tower in his letters, so we don't know why he rented it. On the earlier maps, it appears as a bastion that juts into the singel, as did the other towers on the southern and western sections of the singel. By the time Leeuwenhoek rented it, it was enclosed and had a pointed roof, according to the Kaart Figuratief (detail on right sidebar; click all thumbnails to enlarge).

It begins, Op den 5 December 1693 is Mr. Paulus Durven and Antonij Leeuwenhoek ... . The third-to-last line begins twaalf jaren, twelve years. The second-to-last line begins twaalf gd, twelve guilders.

The tower was very close to Durven's family home on Oosteinde near the Oostpoort. His father Pieter Gerrits had rented St. Agnieten from the city in successive multi-year leases, 24 gl yearly, from 1658 until his death, when the lease was picked up by his son Paul.

St. Sebastiaens Tooren

The earlier maps show this tower, along with St. Agnieten Tooren, as being in front of the wall, a break in what look like bushes partway up. Deventer's map of 1556 and Blaeu's Delft Batavorum map of 1649 show a third tower between St. Agnieten Tooren and St. Sebastiaens Tooren. They are all bastions (sometimes called bulwarks), as high as the wall and without top or roof. Bastions were most commonly pointed, but the Delft bastions were round, leaving a dead zone in front that gunfire from the sides could not reach.

On the post-fire maps of 1536 and on the Kaart Figuratief of 1678, there is no third tower between them. Both are full towers, that is, higher than the wall and covered with a pointed roof. Adding a back wall, often flush with the regular city wall, created a small room within.

All the maps show them as similar, and on the Kaart Figuratief they look like different views of the two towers between the Waterslootse Poort and the Schoolpoort, that is, the St. Michiels Tooren and the St. Hyronimus Toorn.

Spreng Meulen

Oosterwycse Tooren

A roundel, unraised and unfortified on the corner of one of the bends in the singel between the Rotterdamse Poort and the Ooostpoort. Although it is not clear from the Kaart Figuratief, it must have had a raised floor so that shooters could aim their weapons over the wall. It provided excellent angles for defense. The Deventer map of 1556 has a windmill set back a little as a separate structure.

Henegouse Toorn

A round tower set between the wall and the singel, protruding a little into the singel. It had two stories with a pointed roof and two rows of windows.

Rotterdamse Poort